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solidarity and subsidiarity, though they may lead to good effects on the population or individual level, are valuable not because of any utilitarian calculus but because they emphasize different kinds of conditions necessary for flourishing.
Solidarity and Subsidiarity as Principles for Public Health Ethics
First, there is the __‘embodiment relation’__, schematically indicated as *(human—technology) → world*. In this relation, technologies are extensions of the body, as it were. Humans experience the world ‘through’ the technologies here, as when wearing glasses, or using hearing aids. A relation with the world is also possible from the __‘hermeneutic relation’__, though, schematically indicated as *human → (technology—world)*. Some technologies give us access to the world by giving a representation of it, that requires human interpretation in order to be meaningful—hence the name ‘hermeneutic’—like a thermometer that gives a number rather than a sensation of temperature, or a sonogram that gives a visual representation of an unborn child on the basis of reflected ultrasonic soundwaves. A third relation is the so-called __‘alterity relation’__, schematically indicated as *human → technology (world)*. In this relation there is a direct interaction between humans and technologies, like when someone operates a copying machine, or repairs a car. The fourth and last relation Ihde distinguishes is the __background relation__, indicated as *human (technology/world)*. From this relation, technologies have an impact on our relation with the world, without being explicitly experienced themselves. An air conditioning that automatically switches on and off, for instance, creates a context for the experience of human beings by producing noise or creating a specific temperature of the room.
The Onlife Manifesto
Luciano Floridi, editor
he noted in Vogue in 1966, our “electronic world of all-at-onceness” means that “things hit into each other but in which there are no connections.”
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